Reperfusion dans l’embolie pulmonaire: état de l’art et consensus d’experts: position du groupe soins intensifs de cardiologie de la société française de cardiologie.
Clément Delmas, Nadia Aissaoui, Nicolas Meneveau, Helene Bouvaist, Hervé Rousseau, Etienne Puymirat, Marc Sapoval, Erwan Flecher, Guy Meyer, Olivier Sanchez, Costantino Del Giudice, François Roubille, Laurent Bonello
Acute pulmonary embolism is a frequent cardiovascular emergency with an increasing incidence. The prognosis of patients with high-risk and intermediate-high-risk pulmonary embolism has not improved over the last decade. The current treatment strategies are mainly based on anticoagulation to prevent recurrence and reduce pulmonary vasculature obstruction.
However, the slow rate of thrombus lysis under anticoagulation is unable to acutely decrease right ventricle overload and pulmonary vasculature resistance in patients with severe obstruction and right ventricle dysfunction. Therefore, patients with high-risk and intermediate-high-risk pulmonary embolism remain a therapeutic challenge. Reperfusion therapies may be discussed for these patients, and include systemic thrombolysis, catheter-directed therapies and surgical thrombectomy. High-risk patients require systemic thrombolysis, but may have contraindications as a result of the high risk of bleeding. In addition, intermediate-high-risk patients should not receive systemic thrombolysis, despite its high efficacy, because of prohibitive bleeding complications. Recently, percutaneous reperfusion techniques have been developed to acutely decrease pulmonary vascular obstruction with lower-dose or no thrombolytic agents and, thus, potentially higher safety than systemic thrombolysis. Some of these techniques improve key haemodynamic variables.
Cardiac surgical techniques and venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as temporary circulatory support may be useful in selected cases. The development of pulmonary embolism centres with multidisciplinary pulmonary embolism teams is mandatory to enable adequate use of reperfusion and improve outcomes. We aim to present the state of the art regarding reperfusion therapies in pulmonary embolism, but also to provide guidance on their indications and patient selection.
- Pulmonary embolism
- Catheter-directed therapy
- CDT: Catheter-Directed Therapy
- HRPE: High-Risk Pulmonary Embolism
- IHRPE: Intermediate-High-Risk Pulmonary Embolism
- LV: Left Ventricular
- PE: Pulmonary Embolism
- PERT: Pulmonary Embolism Response Team
- RV: Right Ventricle
- TTE: Transthoracic Echocardiography
- USAT: UltraSound-Assisted Thrombolysis
- VA-ECMO: VenoArterial ExtraCorporeal Membrane Oxygenation
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