Management of valvulopathies with acute severe heart failure and cardiogenic shock
Cardiogenic shock is a critical clinical situation, requiring rapid diagnosis, aetiological assessment and immediate initiation of therapy. In industrialized countries, aortic stenosis is the most frequent left-sided valvulopathy, followed by mitral regurgitation, aortic regurgitation and mitral stenosis. Severe valvulopathies leading to cardiogenic shock are not rare conditions, but few data are available on their optimal management.
Therapeutic options for such critical conditions include inotropic agents, mechanical support (when feasible) and rapid valvular intervention. Although surgery remains the gold-standard treatment for severe valvular disease, mortality is frequently prohibitive in the setting of cardiogenic shock, necessitating consideration of alternative therapies. Percutaneous management of valvulopathies has emerged as an alternative treatment for patients deemed at high surgical risk in a stable condition. Although few published data are available, catheter-based interventions may be feasible in the cardiogenic shock setting.
This review offers an overview of different valvulopathies in the cardiogenic shock setting, and summarizes the different therapeutic options currently available in such critical situations.
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